Railroad of Record: Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Locomotive Number: B&O No. 57 Type of Locomotive: 0-8-0, Eight Wheeler
Date Built: 1848
Manufactured by: Newcastle Manufacturing Company Date Rebuilt: 1853
Locomotive Weight: 23.5 tons
Driver Diameter: 43 inches
Cylinders: 17 x 22 inches
Tractive Effort: 8580 lbs.
All black with gold lettering
In 1844, the B&O began using 0-8-0 type locomotive. One of the B&O's primary locomotive builders, Ross Winans used this wheel arrangement because it produced maximum tractive effort by evenly distributing all of the locomotive's weight on its drivers. In 1848, the B&O purchased six 0-8-0 locomotives from outside manufacturers for its freight service. The "Memnon" was built by the Newcastle Manufacturing Company in Delaware. During the Civil War, the "Memnon" was used as a freight engine to haul troops and supplies for the Union army. Since the Civil War, it has been given the nickname "Old War Horse."
The "Memnon" is one of only a handful of surviving original locomotives from the 1840s. It is also the sole surviving Newcastle locomotive. The coal-burning "Memnon" is one of the least altered locomotives in the B&O Railroad Museum's collection. It has blind (flangeless) center drivers. In 1853, the "Memnon" was rebuilt and in 1884, it was renumbered as the No. 13, The "Memnon" was withdrawn from service in 1892 and restored for the World's Columbian Exposition.
During the 2003 Roundhouse roof collapse at the B&O Railroad Museum, the "Memnon" was severely damaged. Its restoration from this event was completed in February 2008.