901 West Pratt St., Baltimore, MD 21223
Detailed Information

Name: B&O No. 305, "Ross Winans"
Railroad of Record: Baltimore & Ohio Railroad
Locomotive Number: B&O #305 (previous # 217)
Type of Locomotive: 4-6-0 Davis Camel, Ten Wheeler
Class:  A
Date Built: 1869

Locomotive Weight: 38.5 tons
Driver Diameter: 50 inches
Cylinders: 19 x 22 inches
Tractive Effort: 8775 lbs

Paint Scheme:
Cab and tender tank: Indian red
Tender truck frames: Indian red
All other parts: Black
Striping and Lettering: Gold

The "Camel" locomotives, which were named for their unique shape and cab location, became a trademark of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) during the mid-19th century. The "Camel" became one of the first coal-burning locomotives produced in large quantities. Eccentric builder, Ross Winans, created the original design of the locomotive in 1848. Challenged to design a locomotive that would burn coal more efficiently, Winans' solution was to construct a large firebox behind the locomotive's mainframe, forcing the engineer's cab to be positioned above the boiler. The "Camel" was designed for productivity rather than for crew comfort. The engineer was often too hot as he sat above the boiler, and faced slim survival chances during a derailment. The fireman was also uncomfortable, as there was little shelter to protect him from the weather. A more critical problem the crew faced was a lack of communication resulting from their separated positions.

During the 1850s, Master of Machinery, Samuel Hayes, adapted features of the 0-8-0 "Camel" design for a fleet of "Ten Wheelers." His locomotives needed to move passenger trains over the mountains of western Virginia. Successor Master of Machinery, J.C. Davis, also combined the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement with the "Camel" design. Over a ten-year period, Davis turned out over 100 heavier versions of the "Camel."

As with many of the B&O Railroad Museum's early locomotives, the No. 305 has been displayed at various fairs and exhibitions under various guises. Most likely the previous number, No. 217, that most recognize, was never applied to the current locomotive during its actual operation while in service.

During the 2003 Roundhouse roof collapse at the B&O Railroad Museum, the No. 217 "Camel" was severely damaged. It was restored and renumbered as the No. 305.



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